It was the third time New York has been shut out in 2014.
Schoop, 22, who came in hitting .222, hit a three-run shot off Tanaka on April 9.
Tanaka (11-2, 2.11 ERA) lost for just the second time this season. The Yankees are 12-3 in his 15 starts.
The 25-year-old rookie right-hander’s line: 7 IP, 6 H, 3 ER, 1 BB, 6 SO, 106 pitches.
Schoop hit a bases-empty shot off Tanaka in the second inning, then produced an RBI groundout in the seventh. Tanaka has surrendered 11 homers this season.
The Orioles (39-35) ended up taking two of three from the Yankees (39-35).
Ouch:Mark Teixeira was hit in the left foot by T.J. McFarland in the eighth. He went down in immediate agony and limped toward first. Teixeira was pulled from the game and spiked his helmet hard to the ground as he walked off the field.
Missed opportunities: The Yankees had two runners on base in the third, fourth and seventh innings, but could never come up with a big hit. Derek Jeter grounded into an inning-ending double-play in the third, Kelly Johnson lined to the pitcher to end the fourth and Brett Gardner hit into a fielder’s choice to conclude the seventh.
Orioles starter Chris Tillman (6-4) posted seven shutout innings.
That happened: With runners on first and second and no outs in the eighth, Nelson Cruz hit a grounder to third. Kelly Johnson fielded the ball cleanly and stepped on the bag for the force.
But Johnson was taken out by Steve Pearce as he tried to complete the double-play at first, and fired the ball high and into the stands as a result.
After a lengthy conference, the umpires concluded that Adam Jones should be on third and Cruz on second. And after Chris Davis was walked intentionally, J.J. Hardy roped a bases-clearing double into the right-center field gap, making it 6-0 Orioles.
Adam Warren, who came in relief of Tanaka at the start of the inning, gave up four runs in the eighth, and saw his ERA jump from 2.04 to 2.88.
2:48: The Yankees looked to be in good shape when Gardner led off the first with a triple. But Gardner overslid the bag, and was tagged out. Initially, he was called safe, but a 2-minute, 48-second review proved otherwise.
Up next: The Yankees head to Toronto for a three-game series, which begins Monday night when rookie Chase Whitley (3-0, 2.56 ERA) opposes right-hander Marcus Stroman (3-2, 5.14).