Manager John Farrell said X-rays to Pedroia's hand came back negative, and an MRI taken later showed no structural damage.
Jonathan Herrera started in Pedroia's place.
"We'll have a better read once we the get the results of the MRI back," Farrell said before the game. "Hopefully, this is just a day-to-day situation."
Pedroia is batting .275 with a .349 on-base percentage with two home runs and 17 RBIs while playing in 53 games.
Also Saturday, the Red Sox called up right-hander Rubby De La Rosa from Triple-A Pawtucket, and he started against the Rays, pitching seven scoreless innings, allowing four hits and striking out eight without issuing a walk.
Outfielder Daniel Nava was optioned back to Pawtucket in a corresponding move. Nava has hit at a .130 clip in 22 games for the Red Sox this season. While with the PawSox, he hit .253 with three home runs and 14 RBIs.