A team trainer tended to Pedroia, who remained in the game and eventually struck out swinging during the nine-pitch at-bat. However, he was replaced by Brock Holt at second base for the top of the ninth inning.
Pedroia finished 0-for-5 to snap his four-game hitting streak.
"He's sore," said Red Sox manager John Farrell after the win. "The foul ball got him just above the ankle on the shin. We'll check him in the morning, but at this point we don't anticipate him missing any time. ... If he comes in tomorrow with any increased soreness, we'll take every precaution needed."
In the clubhouse after the game, Pedroia was sporting a limp and left the ballpark wearing flip-flops.
He broke his left foot in similar fashion on June 25, 2010, at San Francisco and played only two more games that season before undergoing offseason surgery to repair the damage. He had a screw inserted to help it heal and played with it during the entire 2011 season, but had the screw removed prior to 2012.
Pedroia, who will turn 30 on Saturday, is no stranger to playing through injuries, including all of last season with a thumb injury.
"Pedey's a gamer, man," said Red Sox outfielder Shane Victorino. "You never see that guy back down from a challenge. It's impressive. He wanted to stay in that at-bat. I sure it was killing him and he was hurting, but that just shows who he is and what he is. It's impressive. I'll take him on my team any day."
Despite injuries to several key players, the Red Sox remain in first place in the AL East. They're hoping to stay healthy the rest of the way.
"At this point, we can't lose anybody," said Red Sox catcher Jarrod Saltalamacchia, who has played 97 games this season. "It doesn't matter if it's Pedey, David [Ortiz] or a bullpen guy -- we can't lose anybody. It scares you because that's the foot he's broke before, so you don't want him to reinjure it. Thankfully, not thankfully, but it was a little higher and it didn't get him on the foot, but regardless if he broke it or not, he would be out there playing, especially in this situation."
Victorino, who has been playing despite a bad hamstring, understands what it's like to gut it out down the stretch.
"You've got to keep going, brother," Victorino said. "You've got to keep plugging. It's that time of the year and everybody's bumped up and scared up a little bit. You've just got to keep on going. Face the challenge and what's ahead of you every day. Everybody's banged up, not just us."