Talib practiced each day this week and was listed as questionable to play, though the Patriots will be without their top cornerback as they host the Pittsburgh Steelers.
In his absence, the Patriots are likely to start veteran Kyle Arrington opposite second-year player Alfonzo Dennard. Arrington was also questionable to play this week after dealing with a groin issue.
Talib leads the Patriots with four interceptions and has often been used by the team to shadow an opponent's top receiving target. He helped lead an effort to shut out Saints tight end Jimmy Graham back in Week 6.
The Patriots have dealt with a myriad of injuries on defense this season, as defensive tackle Tommy Kelly was the third opening-day starter to be placed on injured reserve on Saturday.
New addition Isaac Sopoaga, acquired in a trade this week, is active and will play.