Without their star, the Bulls came out of the gates slow and never could catch up in a 102-86 loss.
"I went out there to shoot. (I was) a little sore. Sorer than usual," Rose said. "And I decided to sit out. (I was) mad. Mad the whole time. But hopefully in the future it gets better."
Rose added that if it's up to him, he wants to play Tuesday night against Phoenix, but he said the team told him to sit out.
"It's my decision ... they left it up to me for (Tuesday)," Rose, who described his pain as a "six or seven" on a scale of 1-10.
Rose injured his left big toe during the first quarter of last Tuesday night's game against the Minnesota Timberwolves when Anthony Tolliver fell on him and jammed it into the floor. Initially, Rose said he had turf toe, an injury he's been dealing with since his second year in the league. Bulls coach Tom Thibodeau said it was simply a sprain.
"It still hurts a little bit, but I still have to go out there and play," Rose said earlier Monday, according to the Chicago Tribune. "Almost every game, I jam it. By the way that I play and push off, it hurts. I'm very surprised. And I'm kind of irritated. I want it to go away. But it always finds its way back."
Rose is averaging 20.8 points and 8.7 assists per game, pushing the Bulls to a league-best 12-2 start.
The Bulls backcourt was also without Richard Hamilton, who missed his eighth straight game with a groin injury.
After missing nine games, point guard C.J. Watson returned from an elbow injury and he was one of the few bright spots Monday. Watson logged 28 minutes and had 17 points, leading a charge that pulled the Bulls from 22 down in the third to nine down early in the fourth.
John Lucas, who scored 25 points when Rose sat out a win over the Wizards last Wednesday, got the start Monday and was not as effective. He scored only eight points in 20 minutes and had four turnovers.
ESPNChicago.com's Nick Friedell contributed to this report.