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More on Jim Thorpe
Thorpe preceded Deion, Bo
By Ron Flatter
Special to ESPN.com
"[Jim] Thorpe was early 20th century when sportswriting was mythologizing, so it becomes hard to tell what's real and what's myth. He's kind of half a modern sports figure, and half a kind of Paul Bunyan, American mythic figure. The appeal is the idea of the kind of frontier, superhuman, natural man," says author Nick Lemann on ESPN Classic's SportsCentury series.
We certainly never saw him in person. But we sure knew the legend. He was the Olympic track champion who lost his gold medals because he played minor league baseball. Long before Bo and Deion, he was the athlete who played pro baseball and football at the same time.
He was voted "The Greatest Athlete of the First Half of the Century" by the Associated Press and became a charter member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame. But Thorpe's legend was galvanized into America's conscience at the 1912 Olympics, when he won the decathlon and pentathlon in Stockholm.
At the awards ceremony, King Gustav V of Sweden congratulated him: "Sir, you are the greatest athlete in the world."
Thorpe reputedly replied, "Thanks, king."
He returned home a star. Thorpe's name was so big, he received that most American of honors -- a ticker-tape parade in New York City. "I heard people yelling my name," he said, "and I couldn't realize how one fellow could have so many friends."
In the fall, Thorpe scored 25 touchdowns and 198 points to lead an outstanding Carlisle (Pa.) Indian School team. This launched him toward a pro football career, highlighted in 1920 when he helped found the American Professional Football Association, which would evolve into the National Football League.
He was born on May 28, 1888 on Sac-and-Fox land in Indian Territory near the town of Prague, 19 years before Oklahoma became a state. His father Hiram was half-Irish and his mother Charlotte was one-quarter French. They named him Wa-Tho-Huk, which means "Bright Path."
Thorpe was one of the few in his immediate family to have a long life. His twin brother Charles died of pneumonia at eight and his parents died when he was a teenager.
As a child, the rambunctious Thorpe became his athletic father's protégé, at times running 20 miles home from school. "I never was content," he said, "unless I was trying my skill in some game against my fellow playmates or testing my endurance and wits against some member of the animal kingdom."
Although he showed promise, Thorpe was only a star in his schoolyards. That changed in the spring of 1907 when the Carlisle student walked past a track practice. He watched as others failed to clear a high-jump bar set at 5-9. Thorpe gave it a shot and, despite wearing heavy overalls, he easily cleared the bar.
Two years later, Thorpe almost single-handedly overcame the entire Lafayette track team at a meet in Easton, Pa., winning six events. "After it was all over, Thorpe couldn't tell you how he did it," Lafayette coach Harold Anson Bruce said. "Everything came natural."
During the summers of 1909 and 1910, Thorpe was paid - reports having him earning from $2 a game to $35 a week - for playing for Rocky Mount and Fayetteville in the Class D Eastern Carolina League. He naively used his real name, unlike other collegians who adopted pseudonyms to foil amateur rules.
Then again, Thorpe may have thought he would never compete as an amateur. It took some arm-twisting by coach Pop Warner to get Thorpe to return to Carlisle for the 1911 football season.
Warner promoted Thorpe as "the greatest all-around athlete in the world." Thorpe dominated an 18-15 upset of highly regarded Harvard with his four field goals and outstanding running in front of 30,000 in Cambridge.
Then came that grand summer of 1912. On July 7, the 5-foot-11, 180-pound Native-American won the Olympic pentathlon. The next day, he finished tied for fourth in the high jump and on July 13, he took seventh in the long jump. Then came the decathlon, and Thorpe established a world record with 8,412 points. The standard Thorpe set was so high that, if he had duplicated his marks 36 years later, they would have held up well enough to win a silver medal.
After collecting Olympic gold and New York ticker tape, Thorpe picked up where he left off for Warner's Carlisle football team. He ran spectacularly in a 27-6 win over Army. In a Thanksgiving snowstorm, Thorpe had three touchdowns and two field goals in a 32-0 victory over Brown. He was named an All-American again.
Two months later, Worcester (Mass.) Telegram writer Roy Johnson discovered Thorpe's pay-for-play past. Asked for his response by the Amateur Athletic Union, Thorpe wrote, "I hope I will be partly excused by the fact that I was simply an Indian schoolboy and did not know about such things. I was not very wise in the ways of the world and did not realize this was wrong."
In January 1913, Thorpe was stripped of his amateur status and, with it, his two Olympic gold medals. After leaving Carlisle, Thorpe signed to play baseball and be a gate attraction for the New York Giants. He admitted he was more "a sitting hen, not a ballplayer."
Troubled by the curveball, Thorpe hit only .252 in his six seasons (1913-15, 1917-19) as an outfielder with the Giants, Cincinnati Reds and Boston Braves. His best season was his last one, when he batted .327 in 60 games for Boston.
While playing for the Bulldogs in 1920, Thorpe was named the first president of the American Professional Football Association. After playing with Cleveland in 1921, Thorpe created and played for the all-Native-American Oorang Indians. Stints with Rock Island, the New York Giants and a return engagement with Canton followed through 1926.
After more than a year out of football, Thorpe signed with the Chicago Cardinals to make one last appearance against the Chicago Bears on Nov. 30, 1928. "Jim Thorpe played a few minutes but was unable to get anywhere," one reporter wrote. "In his forties and muscle-bound, Thorpe was a mere shadow of his former self."
Thorpe's days as a competitive athlete were over.
Without sports, Thorpe drifted around the country. His drinking, an issue before, became destructive. There were many fights, and almost as many jobs -- painter, ditch digger, deck hand, auto-plant guard and bar bouncer among them. The fifties brought him renewed fame. Besides being named top athlete of the half-century, he was portrayed by Burt Lancaster in the 1951 film "Jim Thorpe All-American."
On March 28, 1953, Thorpe suffered his third heart attack and died in a trailer park in Lomita, Cal. A year later, his third wife Patricia sold his body to the towns of Mauch Chunk and East Mauch Chunk. As stipulated in the contract, the two small Pennsylvania towns combined into one and was renamed Jim Thorpe.
Pleas to have Thorpe's good name restored to Olympic rolls persisted. They were based on a rule, in effect in 1912, which said officials had 30 days to contest an athlete's amateur status. Thorpe's standing did not come into question until six months after the Games.
It was not until Oct. 13, 1982, that the International Olympic Committee finally agreed to restore Thorpe's gold medals. The following January, replicas were presented to his family.
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