Fuller, who had the procedure Tuesday, is expected to make a full recovery, but this could end his college career.
The Hokies have a bye week before ending the regular season at Virginia, and it's possible Fuller could also miss the Hokies' bowl game.
Fuller was having a strong season, with 24 tackles, two tackles for loss, two interceptions, 10 pass breakups, a forced fumble and a blocked kick.
Fuller, who has been hampered by a groin injury since the Hokies' first bye week in mid-October, was sidelined for Senior Day and the loss to Maryland this past Saturday.
Virginia Tech's secondary will turn to freshmen Kendall Fuller (Kyle's brother) and Brandon Facyson, and possibly veteran corner Antone Exum, who missed Senior Day with an ankle injury. Kendall Fuller and Facyson lead the Hokies with five interceptions each.