Rhodes, the No. 3 rated receiver recruit in the country out of Fort Worth Southwest, was expected to play a significant role in the nation's No. 1 scoring offense.
He caught 10 passes for 157 yards as a freshman.
Reggie Rhodes, his father, told ESPN.com that Robbie Rhodes "made another mistake" and was informed Monday morning he was no longer a member of the program.
Robbie Rhodes had already been in trouble once this summer. He was arrested in May on charges of marijuana possession and tampering with physical evidence during a traffic stop in Waco.
According to the Waco Tribune, the McLennan County District Attorney's Office declined to pursue those misdemeanor charges, citing Rhodes' history of no failed drug tests while in the Baylor program and additional evidence that proved he had no knowledge of the drugs located in the vehicle.
Though Rhodes was not charged, his father said he was disciplined by the school and his latest incident, which he would not disclose, violated conditions of an agreement he'd made to remain a member of the team.
"He was in agreement on sanctions that they made with him, and he broke the agreement," Reggie Rhodes said.
Robbie Rhodes was ESPN's No. 35 overall rated recruit in the class of 2013 and was, at the time, the program's highest-rated signee since 2010.
No decisions have been made about his next school, his father said. Robbie Rhodes has yet to decide whether he'll seek a transfer to an FBS program, which would require sitting out this fall, or an FCS school where he could play immediately.