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Mauresmo, currently ranked No. 6 in the world, said she needs more time to recover from an appendectomy in March.
"I rushed back too quickly because there was a lot at stake for me, especially on grass," she said. "Unfortunately my body did not cooperate. Now I am listening to my body and taking some time off to get back to a better and stronger competing shape."
Mauresmo also withdrew from the upcoming Rogers Cup in Toronto.
Her decision leaves Wimbledon finalist Marion Bartoli, No. 4 Svetlana Kuznetsova, No. 10 Daniela Hantuchova and No. 15 Elena Dementieva as the top names in the women's draw at the Pilot Pen, which will be played at the Yale Tennis Center Aug. 17-25.
Francesca Schiavone, ranked No. 26, will replace Mauresmo.
Three-time Grand Slam champion Lindsay Davenport, who gave birth to a son in June, also plans to make her return to competitive tennis by playing doubles in New Haven.