|Information Regarding Purchases or Use of Performance Enhancing Substances by Players in Major League Baseball (62 players/23 active in MLB in 2007)
From the report: "The following discussion is organized in roughly chronological order. Records do not exist to document every transaction described by witnesses. [Kirk] Radomski stated that, with one exception noted below, the payments he received from professional baseball players were for performance enhancing substances, as opposed to personal training or other services, and this assertion was confirmed by those players who agreed to speak with us about their dealings with him."
||In Report | Read it
||Since approximately 2000, the Commissioner's Office has been aware that
Dykstra used anabolic steroids during his playing career. At that time, senior vice president for
security Kevin M. Hallinan, his deputy Martin Maguire, and then-executive vice president for
baseball operations Sandy Alderson met with Dykstra and his doctor in an attempt to increase
their understanding of steroids. Hallinan said that Dykstra admitted to using steroids, saying that
he used them to "keep his weight up" during the season. According to Hallinan, Dykstra said
using steroids eliminated the need for him to work out during the season.
||In 1994, while Segui was playing for the Mets, he and Radomski became friends.
According to Radomski, Segui admitted to him that he used steroids during that season.
Radomski recalled that either at the very end of Segui's time with the Mets (1995) or shortly
thereafter, Segui showed him a bottle of anabolic steroids he had received from Mexico (these
were veterinary steroids, according to Radomski). In a subsequent meeting, Radomski gave
Segui without charge a bottle of Deca-Durabolin and told Segui to try it.
||Radomski retrieved from his banks three checks written by Bigbie. ... The second, dated March 5, 2005, in the amount of $1,200, was for human growth hormone. This check is shown below. The third check, dated
May 6, 2005, in the amount of $1,300, with a memo stating "Supplements," was for two kits of
human growth hormone. Bigbie believes this check was most likely for an amount outstanding from an earlier
purchase for performance enhancing substances.
||According to Bigbie, however, in 2004 Roberts admitted to him that he had
injected himself once or twice with steroids in 2003. Until this admission, Bigbie had never
suspected Roberts of using steroids.
||At the beginning of the 2003 season, Cust and Larry Bigbie were both playing for
Baltimore's class AAA affiliate in Ottawa. Bigbie's locker was next to Cust's. Cust eventually
asked Bigbie if he had ever tried steroids. Bigbie acknowledged he had, and Cust said that he,
too, had tried steroids. Cust told Bigbie that he had a source who could procure anything he
wanted, but Bigbie informed him he already had a friend who could supply him.
||Laker and David Segui were teammates on the 1995 Montreal Expos. According
to Radomski, Segui introduced him to Laker. Although Radomski could recall only one or two
cash transactions with Laker in the late 1990s involving Deca-Durabolin and testosterone, Laker
acknowledged a total of four transactions during our interview of him.
||Radomski said that he did not sell any steroids to Manzanillo and that his only
substance-related involvement with Manzanillo was when he injected him with steroids in the
clubhouse. Radomski stated that he remembered the event clearly because it was the only time
he ever injected a player with steroids.
||Radomski stated that, beginning in
1996, he sold Deca-Durabolin and testosterone to Hundley on three or four occasions. At the
beginning of that year, Radomski told Hundley that if he used steroids, he would hit 40 home
runs. Hundley hit 41 home runs in 1996, having never hit more than 16 in any prior year. After
the season, Radomski said, Hundley took him out to dinner.
||Radomski said that he provided Carreon with Dianabol pills toward the end of his tenure with the Giants
(Carreon was with San Francisco from 1994 through the middle of the 1996 season). He
believes that Carreon paid by check. According to Radomski, Carreon told him that the "ball
was jumping off his bat" and that he could hit farther because of the anabolic steroids he used.
||Radomski said that he sold Deca-Durabolin and testosterone to Morris in late
1999 when Morris was with the Reds. Morris paid by check. Morris's name, with an address
we have confirmed was his, is listed in the address book seized by federal agents from
||Radomski said he met Franco when he
played for the Mets and that he came to know Franco "very well." Radomski said that he sold
Franco steroids on one occasion in 2000 after Franco called him to place the order. This call
occurred, according to Radomski, after Radomski ran into Franco at an event. ... Franco denied ever purchasing or using any performance enhancing substance. Franco also denied that he ever met, knew, or talked with Radomski, asserting that he had never even heard of Radomski before the publicity over Radomski's guilty plea.
||According to Radomski, White started buying performance enhancing substances
from him in 2000. White bought both human growth hormone and Deca-Durabolin. In our first
interview, before he had access to all the checks his banks were able to supply, Radomski
estimated he had engaged in "six to ten" transactions with White, some paid for with cash, others
paid by check. Subsequently, Radomski was able to produce seven checks that he deposited
drawn on White's checking account.
||Toward the end of the road trip which included the Marlins series, or shortly after
the Blue Jays returned home to Toronto, Clemens approached [former Yankees trainer Brian] McNamee and, for the first time,
brought up the subject of using steroids. Clemens said that he was not able to inject himself, and
he asked for McNamee's help. Later that summer, Clemens asked McNamee to inject him with Winstrol, which
Clemens supplied. McNamee knew the substance was Winstrol because the vials Clemens gave
him were so labeled. McNamee injected Clemens approximately four times in the buttocks over
a several-week period with needles that Clemens provided. Each incident took place in
Clemens's apartment at the SkyDome. McNamee never asked Clemens where he obtained the
||McNamee traveled to Tampa at Pettitte's request and spent about ten days
assisting Pettitte with his rehabilitation. McNamee recalled that he injected Pettitte with human
growth hormone that McNamee obtained from Radomski on two to four occasions. Pettitte paid
McNamee for the trip and his expenses; there was no separate payment for the human growth
||McNamee said that he acquired human growth hormone from Radomski for
Knoblauch in 2001. Beginning during spring training and continuing through the early portion
of the season, McNamee injected Knoblauch at least seven to nine times with human growth
||In our first interview, conducted before Radomski obtained complete
records from his banks, Radomski estimated he had engaged in at least seven or eight sales to
Grimsley involving human growth hormone, Deca-Durabolin, and diet pills from 2000 through
2003. Radomski ultimately produced fourteen checks written by Grimsley (including cashier's
checks for which Grimsley was the remitter) from June 2, 2001 through July 29, 2005, totaling
||Page 177, 249
||...in September 2002 Luis Perez, a bullpen catcher for the Montreal Expos, was arrested for possession of a pound of marijuana. In January 2003, he was interviewed by investigators from the Commissioner's Office. Perez told those investigators that he had personally supplied anabolic steroids to Zaun and seven other major
league ball players.
||Radomski said he made one sale to Justice, which occurred after the 2000 World
Series. Justice played for the Yankees that year. Justice paid Radomski by check for two or
three kits of human growth hormone. Radomski said that he cashed this check.
||Radomski believed that Santangelo was referred to him by David Segui when
both played for the Expos between 1995 and 1997. Radomski produced one check from
Santangelo dated October 23, 2000 in the amount of $1,400, which Radomski said was payment
for a kit of human growth hormone.
||Radomski said that Hill told him that he was getting human
growth hormone in San Francisco and was "not feeling anything." Radomski thereafter sent Hill
a "sample bottle" of human growth hormone without charge and told him to try it. Hill tried it
and told Radomski that he "felt everything you told me I would feel." ... According to Hill, he never
used the anabolic steroids that he bought from Radomski.
||Radomski recalled that Vaughn had an ankle injury and
called him for advice. Radomski told Vaughn that human growth hormone would help his
ankle heal faster. Radomski said that thereafter he sold human growth hormone to Vaughn.
Radomski also provided Vaughn with a program for the use of the human growth hormone.
Radomski said that he delivered the substances to Vaughn personally. Radomski produced three
checks deposited into Radomski's accounts and drawn on Vaughn's checking account: two
checks for $3,200 each, and one check for $2,200.
||Radomski said that from 2000 to 2004 he
engaged in five or six transactions with Neagle involving human growth hormone and anabolic
steroids. Neagle always paid by check. At one point, Neagle had another major league player send a check to Radomski because that player owed Neagle money. Radomski stated that he
never sold human growth hormone or steroids to the other player.
||Villone first purchased human growth hormone from Radomski during the 2004
season. Radomski sent this order to Villone at the Seattle Mariners' clubhouse. For the second
transaction, Radomski met Villone during the 2004-05 off-season at a diner where Radomski
personally delivered the human growth hormone to him. Villone's third purchase from
Radomski took place during the 2005 season. Radomski sent that package to Villone's residence
||On August 2, 2005, Ryan Franklin was suspended for ten games for a positive test
for anabolic steroids that was conducted in May 2005. Upon the announcement of Franklin's
suspension, he is reported to have said he had no idea how he tested positive.
||Donnels said that he told Dodgers athletic trainer Matt Wilson that he was
considering using performance enhancing substances. Wilson told him to "look it up on the
computer" and said "I don't need to hear anything about it."
||In 2001, a season in which Williams played in both Major League Baseball and
the minor leagues, Radomski stated that he sold Winstrol to Williams once.
||Radomski first spoke to Hiatt while he was with the Dodgers in 2001. Over the
span of several seasons, Radomski sold Hiatt both human growth hormone and Deca-Durabolin.
According to Radomski, he sold these performance enhancing substances to Hiatt on two or
||Sometime in 2000 or 2001, while he was still with the Mets, Pratt asked to buy
anabolic steroids. Radomski made one or two sales of small amounts of steroids to Pratt.
Radomski also recalled having a few discussions with Pratt regarding their use.
||While Radomski could not remember who introduced him to
Young, he did remember that he was asked to bring two kits of human growth hormone to this first meeting. Radomski said that he went to lunch with Young and afterward went up to
Young's hotel room where Radomski sold him one or two kits of human growth hormone.
||During the search of Radomski's residence, an undated, partial shipping label was
seized with Lansing's name on it and a Colorado address. We have confirmed that Lansing
resided at this address when he played with the Rockies. Lansing's name, with an address and
two telephone numbers, is listed in the address book seized from Radomski's residence by
||McKay's name is listed in the address book seized by federal agents from
Radomski's residence, along with a telephone number that is still listed to and used by McKay.
McKay's address in the address book is the clubhouse address for the Indianapolis Indians, a
minor league team where McKay played in 2003.
||Radomski produced one check from Mercker to Radomski in the amount of
$1,600. The check number and date are not legible. ... During the search of Radomski's home, federal agents seized a copy of an Express Mail receipt indicating a shipment to Mercker on October 29, 2002.
||We later interviewed Piatt, who voluntarily admitted his use of performance enhancing
substances. He accepted full responsibility for his actions and said that he had learned an
important life lesson as a result.
||Radomski recalled receiving a call from Piatt during which he said he needed
extra testosterone because "one of the guys wanted some." In a later conversation, Piatt told
Radomski that the testosterone was for his teammate, Miguel Tejada. Radomski never spoke, or
sold performance enhancing substances, directly to Tejada.
||Radomski produced a check dated July 2, 2002 from Christiansen to Radomski in
the amount of $1,600. ... Radomski
stated that this was payment for one kit of human growth hormone and that this was a one-time
||Radomski met Stanton around 2001 while he was pitching for the Yankees.
Radomski recalled making two sales of human growth hormone to Stanton. The first occurred in
2003, during Stanton's first season with the Mets. Early in that season, Radomski mailed two
kits of human growth hormone to Stanton at his residence. Stanton paid Radomski $3,200 by
||Radomski said that he spoke to Randolph several times about
human growth hormone and then told Randolph to do some research before using it. Radomski
said that he sold Randolph human growth hormone thereafter, in 2003 or 2004. Randolph's
name, with a telephone number, is listed in the address book seized from Radomski's residence
by federal agents. Radomski mailed the package of human growth hormone to the address listed
in his address book.
|Jerry Hairston Jr.
||Hairston was referred to Radomski by David Segui, his teammate on the Orioles
from 2002 to 2004. Radomski said that he sold human growth hormone to Hairston on two or
three occasions during 2003 and 2004. Radomski produced one check from Hairston dated June 16, 2003.
||Page 207, 251
||Radomski produced copies of three checks from Lo Duca, each in the amount of
$3,200. All are included in the Appendix. Radomski said that each check was in payment for
two kits of human growth hormone. Lo Duca's name, with an address and telephone number, is listed in the address
book seized from Radomski's residence by federal agents.
||Radomski produced five checks and money orders that he received from Riggs
and deposited into his bank accounts. The dates ranged from July 10, 2003 to November 30,
2005. Four checks totaled $1,150; the other check amount was illegible.
||Radomski described Miadich as a frequent purchaser of small quantities of testosterone and Winstrol from 2002 to 2005. Radomski also said that Miadich advised him that he was getting human growth
hormone elsewhere. According to Radomski, Miadich called him regularly, including when
Miadich was playing in Japan in 2005, when he called to buy performance enhancing substances
for use during the upcoming off-season.
||Radomski stated that he sold anabolic
steroids or human growth hormone to Vina six to eight times during 2000 to 2005. Radomski
produced three checks from Vina. Radomski stated that these checks reflected a March 2003
purchase by Vina of human growth hormone, an April 2003 purchase by Vina of steroids, most likely Winstrol, and a July 2005 purchase by Vina of Deca-Durabolin.
||In the notes of the October 2003 meetings among Dodgers officials, it was
reportedly said of Brown: "Kevin Brown -- getting to the age of nagging injuries ... Question
what kind of medication he takes ... Effectiveness goes down
covering 1st base or running bases. Common in soccer players and
are more susceptible if you take meds to increase your muscles --
doesn't increase the attachments. Is he open to adjusting how he
takes care of himself? He knows he now needs to do stuff before coming to spring training to be ready. Steroids speculated by GM."
||Although he is not sure when, Radomski recalled that Lo Duca called Radomski and told
Radomski that Gagné was with him and wanted to buy human growth hormone. Gagné then
came onto the phone and asked Radomski a question about how to get air out of a syringe. This
is the only time Radomski spoke to Gagné. Radomski said that Lo Duca thereafter placed orders
on Gagné's behalf.
||Bell said that he purchased and received one shipment of human
growth hormone from Radomski while in the minor leagues during the 2003 off-season. Bell
never met Radomski but recalled hearing his name during the two seasons (1998 and 1999) that
he spent in the Mets' minor league system. When asked how he came to know that Radomski
could obtain performance enhancing substances for him, Bell said that "a lot of people knew him
and knew what he did."
||Radomski produced one check from Herges dated November 1, 2005 in the
amount of $3,240. ... Radomski said
that this check was in payment for two kits of human growth hormone, plus $40 for shipping.
A piece of an undated shipping receipt to Herges and a copy of an Express Mail receipt dated
November 2, 2005 sent to the same address were seized from Radomski's residence by federal
|Gary Bennett Jr.
||Radomski said that Denny Neagle referred Bennett to him. Neagle and Bennett
were teammates in 2001 and 2002 with the Colorado Rockies. Radomski recalled one
transaction with Bennett in July 2003 for two kits of human growth hormone. Radomski
produced one check from Bennett payable to Kirk Radomski in the amount of $3,200 dated
July 13, 2003.
||Radomski did not recall who referred Parque to him but said that he made two
sales of human growth hormone to him. Radomski said that during the 2003 off-season Parque
sent Radomski a bottle of Winstrol to "check out." Radomski determined it was "no good" and
discarded it. Radomski produced two checks from Parque. The first was dated October 18,
2003 in the amount of $3,200; the second was dated December 6, 2003 in the amount of $1,600.
||Radomski said that Donnelly was referred to him by Adam Riggs. Both Riggs
and Donnelly played for the Angels in 2003 and 2004. Radomski recalled that Donnelly called
him in 2004 looking for Anavar, an anabolic steroid. Radomski made one sale to Donnelly of
Deca-Durabolin for which Donnelly paid $250 to $300.
||According to Allen, the 2003 off-season was the only occasion when he used steroids. Allen explained that he
did not want his teammates to know that he used steroids, and he did not want to use anything
during the season because he "did not want to be on a different playing field from his
teammates." He also was concerned about testing positive.
||Radomski said that he sold the steroids Anavar and Dianabol to Williams.
Radomski produced one check from Williams dated December 10, 2004 in the amount of $1,820.
||According to Radomski, Clark was introduced to him by Larry Bigbie. Radomski
said that Clark called him several times before buying anything. Radomski recalled that Clark
had done his own research about human growth hormone and had decided to use it. Radomski
said that he made four or five sales of human growth hormone to Clark and that Clark paid him
by money order or check.
|Exavier "Nook" Logan
||Rondell White, a Tigers teammate, referred Logan to Radomski. Radomski stated
that he sold Logan one kit of human growth hormone just before federal agents searched
Radomski's house in December 2005. Radomski mailed the package to Logan, who paid by
||[Albuquerque Dukes strength and conditioning coach Todd] Seyler observed Lo Duca and Judd inject themselves with either Deca-Durabolin or Winstrol, although Seyler could not remember where they
injected themselves or which of the two substances they used.
||Seyler further observed Stone
inject himself in the thigh with Deca-Durabolin.
||According to statements by Gene Orza, chief operating officer of the Players Association, Turnbow had tested
positive [during training camp for the U.S. Olympic baseball team the previous October] as the result of taking androstenedione, which was not a prohibited substance under the
Major League Baseball joint drug program at the time. Orza reportedly said: "Derrick Turnbow did not test positive for a steroid. He tested positive for what the [International Olympic
Committee] and others regard as a steroid, but the U.S. government does not."
||In an interview for this investigation, Joyner told us that he struggled with the
decision whether to try steroids, but eventually he decided to use them. After taking the drugs
three times, Joyner decided that he had made a mistake, discarded the rest of the pills, and never
tried illegal performance enhancing substances again.
||On August 1, 2005, Major League Baseball announced that Baltimore Orioles
first baseman and designated hitter Rafael Palmeiro had violated the league's joint drug program
and would be suspended for 10 games. Palmeiro subsequently acknowledged that he had
tested positive for the anabolic steroid stanozolol, the generic name for Winstrol, but he
repeatedly denied that he had ever "intentionally taken steroids."
||In an article in 2006, a similar story was recounted by Paxton Crawford, a pitcher
who was on the roster of the Boston Red Sox in 2000 and 2001. Crawford admitted to using
steroids and human growth hormone while with the Red Sox. He described an incident in which
syringes he had wrapped in a towel were spilled onto the floor of the Red Sox clubhouse, which
he said caused laughter among his teammates.
||In September 2007, Cincinnati Reds catcher Ryan Jorgenson also was
suspended for 50 games based on non-analytic evidence that he had violated the joint program.
||In late June 2000, a clubhouse attendant with the Florida Marlins brought a paper
bag to the club's athletic trainers that had been found in the locker of Marlins pitcher Ricky
Bones. The bag contained over two dozen syringes, six vials of injectable medications --
stanozolol and nandrolone decanoate, two anabolic steroids that are sold under the names
Winstrol and Deca-Durabolin, respectively -- and a page of handwritten instructions on how to
administer the drugs. Soon thereafter, the athletic trainers returned the bag and its contents to
Bones at his request.
||[Astros director of team travel Barry] Waters did not deliver the vials to Caminiti, but believing incorrectly that there was no policy requiring him to report the incident, he did not report the matter to anyone else
with the Astros or to the Commissioner's Office. Caminiti later admitted that he had used
steroids during his playing career in a widely read Sports Illustrated article that was published in
|Alleged Internet Purchases of Performance Enhancing Substances By Players in Major League Baseball (16 players/8 active in MLB in 2007)
From the report: "Since the initial news reports of the raid by New York and Florida law enforcement officials on Signature Pharmacy and several rejuvenation centers, the names of several current and former major league players have appeared in the media as alleged purchasers of performance enhancing substances through these operations."
||In Report | Read it
||In comments to reporters after the story was published, Ankiel initially admitted
that he had used human growth hormone while recovering from ligament surgery in 2003, but he
then invoked medical privacy laws to decline further comment. Ankiel said that "[a]ll and any medications that I have received in my career has (sic) always been under a doctor's care, a
||According to [a Sports Illustrated] article, Bell reportedly
purchased six packages of human chorionic gonadatropin ("HCG") from the pharmacy in April
2005 while he was playing for the Philadelphia Phillies. HCG is a hormone that is produced
during pregnancy; it is used by steroid abusers to counteract the effects of steroid use on the
body's natural production of testosterone.
||In public comments in response to [a San Francisco Chronicle] article, Byrd admitted that he had been
taking human growth hormone but said that he had been using it to treat a tumor on his pituitary
gland. Byrd reportedly said that he had never taken "any hormone or drug that was not prescribed" to him by a doctor.
||In a later telephone interview with my
investigative staff, however, [Canseco lawyer Robert] Saunooke confirmed that Canseco had purchased human growth hormone over the internet on several occasions, both before and after his retirement from
baseball. Saunooke said that Canseco had taken a blood test in connection with these purchases.
||The Commissioner's Office met with Gibbons on September 18, 2007 to discuss
the news reports. On December 6, 2007, the Commissioner's Office announced a 15-day
suspension of Gibbons for violation of the joint drug program, to take effect at the start of the
2008 season. After the suspension was announced, Gibbons said: "I am deeply sorry for the
mistakes that I have made. I have no excuses and bear sole responsibility for my decisions.
Years ago, I relied on the advice of a doctor, filled a prescription, charged the HGH, which is a
medication, to my credit card and had only intended to help speed my recovery from my injuries
||Glaus reportedly met with officials from the Commissioner's Office in September
2007. On December 6, 2007, the Commissioner's Office announced that there was
insufficient evidence of a violation of the joint program in effect at the time of the conduct in
question to warrant discipline of Glaus.
||In an article on November 6, 2007, the San Francisco Chronicle reported that
Seattle Mariners outfielder Jose Guillen purchased human growth hormone, testosterone, and other steroids through the Palm Beach Rejuvenation Center in multiple transactions over a three-year
period between 2002 and 2004 and possibly also in 2005.
||Holmes reportedly admitted to reporters that he ordered human growth hormone
after searching the internet for solutions to his shoulder pain but claimed that he never used it.
He also reportedly said that he had not ordered the testosterone that was included in the package,
which aroused his suspicion. After discussing whether to use the human growth hormone with
his wife, Holmes reportedly said that he "threw the box away and never used it."
|Gary Matthews Jr.
||Several weeks after [a Sports Illustrated] report appeared, Matthews issued a statement in which he
said "I have never taken H.G.H., during the 2004 season or any other time. Nobody has accused
me of doing so, and no law enforcement agency has said I am a target of any investigation for
doing so." In his statement, Matthews did not deny that human growth hormone had been
shipped to him, and he declined to answer reporters' questions about that omission.
||In March 2007, Sports Illustrated reported that, according to the Applied
Pharmacy Services database, former pitcher John Rocker received two prescriptions for human
growth hormone (somatropin) between April and July 2003. Rocker initially denied the
allegations, but his spokesperson later reportedly said that Rocker had been prescribed human
growth hormone in connection with shoulder surgery.
||On October 1, 2007, ESPN reported on its website that New York Mets pitcher
Scott Schoeneweis had received six shipments of steroids from Signature Pharmacy at Comiskey
Park while he was playing for the Chicago White Sox in 2003 and 2004. Dr. Ramon Scruggs
of the New Hope Health Center (the suspended California physician who also was reported to
have issued prescriptions for Troy Glaus) reportedly prescribed the drugs. According to ESPN,
Schoeneweis spent $1,160 on steroids, including testosterone and stanozolol. Schoeneweis
denied the report.
||According to [the San Francisco Chronicle], on September 7, 2002, while he was playing with the
Mariners, Valdez "used a credit to card to buy nearly $2,500 worth of human growth hormone,"
which was shipped to him at the Texas Rangers ballpark in Arlington, Texas where Valdez had
been playing until he was traded to the Mariners the prior month. Ten days later, Valdez
reportedly purchased Novarel, clomiphene, and Arimidex from the center, all of which are used
to counteract the effects of steroid abuse.502 The article reported that "Valdez's prescriptions
were written by the same dentist who prescribed drugs to [Paul] Byrd, [Jose] Guillen and [retired
infielder Matt] Williams."
||The [San Francisco Chronicle] reported that Williams admitted that a doctor told him that human
growth hormone might help him heal from an ankle injury that he had suffered in 2002. "He
said he learned about the Florida center from a health magazine and went through a battery of
tests before obtaining a prescription for growth hormone in 2002." Williams reportedly said that
he did not know that a dentist had written prescriptions for him. He did not comment on whether
he had ordered or used steroids or drugs intended for use by women, as reportedly reflected in
||In a September 7, 2007 article, the New York Daily News reported that Steve
Woodard, a former pitcher who played with four different major league clubs over seven seasons
ending in 2003 (the Milwaukee Brewers, Cleveland Indians, Texas Rangers, and Boston
Red Sox), received a shipment of steroids and human growth hormone from The Health and
Rejuvenation Center, the same Palm Beach Gardens anti-aging center that reportedly supplied
St. Louis Cardinals outfielder Rick Ankiel. The article did not state when the shipment to
Woodard allegedly occurred.