Larsen was injured in the Broncos' season finale Jan. 1, and Denver lost its top receiver, Eric Decker, to a similar injury in its wild-card playoff win over Pittsburgh on Sunday.
Goodwin, an undrafted rookie from Washington, spent the season on Denver's practice squad. The Broncos also added first-year receiver Tim Toone to their practice squad.
"I know the offense pretty well," Goodwin said. "I've been making sure I pay attention to every week's game plan."
The Broncos were missing a handful of players for practice on Tuesday as the team prepared for its second-round playoff game at New England this weekend. Among those sitting out were defensive end Elvis Dumervil (right ankle) and Decker, along with safeties Brian Dawkins (neck), and David Bruton (Achilles). Tight end Daniel Fells also sat out with an unspecified injury.