The second-seeded Spaniard defeated Simone Bolelli of Italy 6-2, 6-2, 6-1 Tuesday on Court Philippe Chatrier -- the same stadium where Nadal has won six of his 10 Grand Slam titles.
Nadal, who is tied with Bjorn Borg with six French Open titles, improved his record to 46-1 at Roland Garros. His only loss came in the fourth round in 2009, against Robin Soderling.
He's not worried about the record just yet, though.
"We are in the second round," Nadal said. "I have enough work to do thinking about the next round, and not think about if Bjorn will be here or if I'm going to play the final. That's day-by-day and we'll see."
Against Bolelli, Nadal made only 18 unforced errors, fewer than half as many as his opponent. From 2-2 in the first set, Nadal won eight straight games to take control.
"I think I did what I had to do today," Nadal said. "I played probably with less stress or nervous than in other first rounds in the past."
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And after a short blip in the second set, Nadal won eight of the last nine games.
"I tried to play aggressive with the forehand, with the serve, but today I miss a lot," Bolelli said. "He's strong. I mean, I didn't have a chance to make the match even."
Fourth-seeded Andy Murray also advanced, beating Tatsuma Ito of Japan 6-1, 7-5, 6-0. Sixth-seeded David Ferrer of Spain and No. 8 Janko Tipsarevic of Serbia also advanced.
Information from The Associated Press contributed to this report.