Athletic director Terry Tumey announced Monday that Gould would replace Bob Biggs, who retired after the 2012 season.
The 47-year-old Gould called it a "dream come true" to coach the Aggies.
Gould was a highly respected assistant on former Cal coach Jeff Tedford's staff. He helped develop nine 1,000-yard rushers during his final 11 seasons with the Golden Bears. Six of the program's top 10 all-time rushers played under Gould, including NFL players Marshawn Lynch, Jahvid Best and Shane Vereen.
Gould has also coached at Oregon, Portland State and Boise State.
Gould will be paid an annual base salary of $235,000.