Matsuzaka has been on the disabled list since April 15 with a mild right shoulder strain.
He allowed two hits -- a ground single and an infield single -- walked two and struck out five against Toledo.
Matsuzaka threw 29 of 47 pitches for strikes and topped out at 93 mph, according to the radar gun at McCoy Stadium.
The right-hander pitched himself into and out of a second-inning jam. Toledo loaded the bases with no outs on a single by Brent Clevelen and two walks. But Matsuzaka retired Ryan Roberson on a pop fly, struck out Dusty Ryan and got Jason Tyner to bounce back to the mound.