Asche had three hits, including a homer that capped a six-run fourth inning. The burst was plenty for Martin (1-1).
"We both kind of got up here at the same time, so we're both going through all of this together," Asche said. "It's kind of nice to have a friend that's doing the same thing, and it just so happened we both did something cool on the same day."
Martin pitched five innings and allowed one run and four hits, striking out four and walking three. Nate Schierholtz homered in the fourth.
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Martin won in his second major league start. He gave up six runs in a loss to Atlanta last Friday.
"It's been a dream of mine for about as long as I can remember," he said. "So to be able to do this, I'm pretty happy."
Chase Utley delivered an RBI double on the day the Phillies announced a new contract with the star second baseman that goes through the 2015 season.
The Phillies took two of three from the Cubs for their first series win since the All-Star break.
Jeff Samardzija (6-11) was chased in the big fourth. He gave up nine runs and 11 hits in 3 1/3 innings in his shortest outing of the year.
"They came out with a game plan to attack me, and it worked," Samardzija said. "They put the bat on the ball. ... I threw too many balls up in the zone. My slider was good, but it was just one of those days."
The game was delayed by rain for 22 minutes in the seventh inning.
Ruf launched a two-run homer in the third, connecting on an 0-2 pitch. It was his second drive of the series and fifth home run of the year.
Carlos Ruiz's bunt single drove in the first run in Philadelphia's fourth. Domonic Brown added a two-run single and Asche hit a line-drive homer to right field.
John McDonald hit his first homer of the year, a two-run shot in the eighth.
"Might've been the best we've hit all year," Phillies manager Charlie Manuel said. "That was exciting. We had a really good day today. Our guys had some fun, and hopefully this will carry over and we'll get a lot of our respect back, play better, and win some games."
Phillies 3B Michael Young was in the original lineup but was scratched and did not play. ... Anthony Rizzo doubled for the Cubs. Of his 102 hits this season, over half (52) have been for extra bases. ... The Cubs have an extra-base hit in 31 consecutive games. ... The Phillies claimed OF Casper Wells off waivers Thursday from the Chicago White Sox. ... Thursday's win marked No. 999 for Phillies manager Charlie Manuel in his career. He is on deck to become the 59th manager in major league history to win 1,000. ... Philadelphia embarks on a six-game road trip in Washington beginning Friday, when former Nationals pitcher John Lannan (3-4, 4.10) will start. ... The Cubs will be in St. Louis on Friday to begin a three-game set with the Cardinals. Chris Rusin (1-1, 3.98) will get the ball in the first game.
Copyright by STATS LLC and The Associated Press
PHILADELPHIA - AUGUST 8: Darin Ruf #18 of the Philadelphia Phillies is congratulated by Chase Utley #26 after...