Rodriguez started Thursday's game against the Brewers, getting a no-decision as Milwaukee rallied for 4-3 victory in the bottom of the ninth.
He struggled in two rehab starts, posting a 10.38 ERA in starts for Triple-A Indianapolis.
He did not pitch after June 5 last season because of tightness in his forearm.
Outfielder Jaff Decker was optioned to Indianapolis to make room for Rodriguez.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.