Cabrera had to be helped off the field after getting injured while running to first base in Monday's 7-4 loss to the New York Yankees.
Cabrera, dealing with the quad injury since late April, was set to undergo an MRI in Cleveland on Tuesday.
Indians manager Terry Francona said Cabrera could be out four weeks, although that was merely a guess. Francona has indicated that infielder Mike Aviles will see regular time at shortstop in Cabrera's absence.
"This is where the versatility of the club should help us," Francona said.
In 53 games this season, Cabrera is batting .254 with five homers and 25 RBIs while leading the team with 25 extra-base hits. Cabrera entered this season having made the All-Star team in each of the past two seasons.
To take Cabrera's roster spot, the Indians recalled shortstop Juan Diaz from Triple-A Columbus.
Information from The Associated Press was used in this report.