Sources close to the event confirmed the matchup to ESPN.com on Tuesday. MMAjunkie.com first reported the news.
Belfort (21-9) hasn't fought since posting a first-round submission win over Anthony Johnson at UFC 142. He had been scheduled to fight Wanderlei Silva at UFC 147, but withdrew because of a hand injury.
Earlier on Tuesday, the Brazilian wrote on his Twitter account he was in talks with UFC matchmaker Joe Silva on a potential fight against Chris Weidman. Weidman, coming off a convincing win over Mark Munoz, has been campaigning for an immediate title shot against champion Anderson Silva.
Belcher (18-6) will carry a four-fight win streak into the October contest. The 28-year-old has won six of his past seven fights, with the lone loss coming by way of a controversial split decision to Yoshihiro Akiyama at UFC 100.
Belfort, the No. 2-ranked middleweight in the world by ESPN.com, fell short in his bid for a title against Silva at UFC 126 in February 2011. Belcher, ranked No. 7, never has fought for a UFC title.