Coach Bret Bielema made the announcement during the Badgers annual media day on Sunday.
Taylor originally had to undergo reconstructive surgery on the knee after he ruptured his anterior cruciate ligament last season against Iowa.
Bielema did not specify the nature of the new injury, but he said Taylor will undergo surgery on Tuesday after re-injuring the knee late last week. He's expected to miss two to four weeks.
Bielema also announced that junior guard Kevin Zeitler injured a leg during Saturday's intrasquad scrimmage. He could be out for a week.