Goodson will have an MRI on Monday, a league source told ESPNNewYork.com's Rich Cimini. The source added that the injury could be serious.
Jets coach Rex Ryan did not have any further information on Goodson following the game.
The injury occurred in the fourth quarter, on a play in which Jets quarterback Geno Smith was intercepted by Steelers linebacker Lawrence Timmons. Goodson needed assistance to get up and leave the field.
The Jets signed Goodson, 26, to a three-year, $6.9 million contract, including a $1 million signing bonus, during the offseason. He was the first free-agent signing by new general manager John Idzik. But Goodson then was suspended for the first four games of the season for violating the NFL's policy and program for substances of abuse.
Goodson made his Jets debut last week, with three carries for 32 yards and one reception for 9 yards in the team's 30-28 upset of the Atlanta Falcons. He had four carries for 29 yards and one reception for 10 yards against the Steelers.
Starting running back Bilal Powell also left Sunday's game with an injury to his shoulder, according to Ryan. But Powell insisted he was not injured.
"I just took a little hit, came out and took a breather," Powell said after the game. "Came in and everything is good."