Callahan will have an MRI on his left shoulder on Wednesday afternoon, according to a team spokesperson. His status for Thursday's game against Pittsburgh is not known.
Rangers coach John Tortorella said he had "no idea" how long the injury would sideline Callahan.
Callahan, who gave the Rangers a 2-0 lead with a power-play goal in the second period, dropped the gloves with Talbot at 4:42 of the third period and left the ice immediately after the fight ended. He skated off in distress, hunched over and appearing to favor his left shoulder.
"Cally does everything so well -- the little plays, especially blocking shots," said Rangers defenseman Michael Del Zotto, who had a goal and an assist. "The guys did a good job of gathering ourselves after he went off with that injury."
ESPNNewYork.com's Matt Ehalt contributed to this report. Information from The Associated Press also was used.