Authorities announced their decision in court Wednesday. Vilma was arrested last month on a felony charge of resisting arrest with violence and misdemeanor counts of reckless driving and obstruction of justice. Prosecutors did not immediately give a reason for dropping the case.
Vilma will donate $1,000 to a hospital trauma center, said Ed Griffith, a spokesman for the Miami-Dade State Attorney's office. The officer involved agreed with the decision not to press charges, Griffith said.
Attorney Michael Tein says his client is relieved and is looking forward to focusing on football again.
Vilma is scheduled to become an unrestricted free agent on Friday but has said he would prefer to stay in New Orleans. He played every defensive snap and led the Saints in tackles in his first season with New Orleans after spending his first four years with the New York Jets.
"I appreciate that the Miami-Dade State Attorney's Office did their due diligence and decided not to file charges against me regarding the arrest that occurred on January 16, 2009 in Miami," Vilma said in a prepared statement. "I believe the State Attorney's Office did the just and right thing in this matter. I would like to thank my family and friends, the New Orleans Saints organization, and my fans for supporting and believing in me."
Information from The Associated Press was used in this report.