Woods and Dolphins safety Reshad Jones tussled after a running play, with the two players falling to the ground. While on the ground, Woods swung at Jones' helmet.
After being ejected, Woods argued with an official before Bills coach Doug Marrone escorted his rookie receiver to the sideline.
Woods, a second-round draft pick, has started 12 games this season and has 36 catches for 490 yards and three touchdowns.
The Bills were already without top receiver Stevie Johnson, who traveled back to California following the death of his mother. They also lost rookie receiver Marquise Goodwin to a knee injury in the first quarter.