Martin has five seasons of NFL experience after spending last year with Seattle. He has 65 catches for 1,006 yards and seven touchdowns in 53 games, including nine starts.
A Saginaw Valley State product, Martin also has played with Green Bay and St. Louis.
The Bills are in need of healthy receivers as they prepare to host Jacksonville Saturday. Receivers Roscoe Parrish (left calf), Donald Jones (head), Naaman Roosevelt (right ankle) and Craig Davis all have missed the first two days of practice this week.
Buffalo's receiving corps was depleted even before this week, after the team traded seven-year veteran Lee Evans to Baltimore two weeks ago.