Terms weren't disclosed, but a source told ESPN.com's John Clayton that the deal is worth $28.3 million and Robison will receive a $5 million signing bonus and have a guarantee of $12.15 million.
Robison said negotiations heated up between the Vikings and his agent, Vann McElroy, during the bye week, and he signed the deal Tuesday morning.
"Me and my family sat down and talked about things, and we realized there are not a whole lot of guys in the league that get to start and end their career in one place," Robison said. "This is an opportunity for me to do that."
Robison tweeted a picture of him signing his extension.
Sorry Viking fans, but you have to put up with me for 4 more years pic.twitter.com/sv8G3P6ooY
— Brian Robison (@Brian_Robison) October 9, 2013
The 30-year-old Robison has one sack this season, along with 10 tackles in four games. He had 8.5 sacks last season and has 31 in his career.
Robison was scheduled to become a free agent after the season, like many of the Vikings' prominent defensive linemen. The contracts of Jared Allen, Kevin Williams and Everson Griffen will expire after the season, though coach Leslie Frazier said he hopes Robison's deal will pave the way for the Vikings to get other defensive linemen locked up.
"Obviously I couldn't have done this without those guys," Robison said. "Bottom line is that I think the Vikings are happy about it. I'm very happy about it that we shored up at least one guy for next year and hopefully more to come."
ESPN.com senior writer John Clayton contributed to this report.