Taylor injured the thumb in the first quarter of Pittsburgh's 16-7 loss to the Washington Redskins in the preseason opener last Friday. He had a pin inserted into the hand during Tuesday's procedure, but felt well enough to join his teammates for lunch.
Taylor anticipates returning before the Steelers open the regular season at Baltimore on Sept. 11.
The 31-year-old Taylor signed a four-year, $28 million contract last month to remain with the Steelers.
William Gay likely will start in Taylor's place on Thursday when Pittsburgh hosts Philadelphia at Heinz Field.