Backlund, a first-round pick by Calgary in the 2007 draft, played 32 games with the Flames last season.
He had eight goals and eight assists but struggled with injuries. Backlund missed four weeks with a sprained knee ligament and sustained a foot fracture near the end of the season.
In 170 career NHL games with the Flames, Backlund has 23 goals and 39 assists.
"Mikael really stepped up last season and took advantage of the change in direction under a new coaching staff," Flames general manager Jay Feaster said in a statement. "If it wasn't for his injury, we believe he would have progressed even further in his development."